By John J. McCarthy

ISBN-10: 0521791944

ISBN-13: 9780521791946

This e-book describes Optimality thought from the pinnacle down, explaining and exploring the crucial premises of OT and the implications that stick with from them. Examples are drawn from phonology, morphology, and syntax, however the emphasis all through is at the idea instead of the examples, on figuring out what's certain approximately OT and on equipping readers to use it, expand it, and critique it of their personal components of curiosity. The book's insurance extends to paintings on first- and second-language acquisition, phonetics and sensible phonology, computational linguistics, old linguistics, and sociolinguistics. Chapters finish with broad feedback for additional interpreting, labeled through subject, and are supplemented by way of an enormous bibliography (over 800 items).

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A only if B only if C. . ," where some kind of scale of relative markedness is involved. Two techniques have been developed for analyzing implicational universals in OT; both involve imparting some internal structure to CON. 516 J (5) A stringency relation Cl \ C2 : * : * Struca Strucb Strucc * The constraints in (5) give the harmonic ordering [Struca >- Strucb >• Strucc ]. That ordering holds regardless of how Cl and C2 are ranked with respect to one another. 2). Typical applications of the stringency idea involve a contextually restricted constraint as Cl and its context-free counterpart as C2.

3. Alignment constraints are usually construed gradiently. Suppose some highranking constraint rules out the perfectly aligned candidate, and two candidates, neither of which is perfectly aligned, remain. The Alignment constraint favors the one that is closer to perfect alignment than the other. In such situations, it is of course necessary to be precise about how the extent of violation is to be translated into violation-marks. 14 Local constraint conjunction is another source of internal structure in CON, originally proposed by Smolensky (1995b).

Harmonic alignment is defined as in (7) (after Prince and Smolensky 1993: 136). (7) Harmonic alignment Given a binary dimension D± with a scale X > Y and another dimension D2 with a scale a > b > . . > z, the harmonic alignment of D± and D2 is the following pair of harmony scales: Hx = X/a > X/b >-... > X/z HY = Y/z > ... > Y/b > Y/a The constraint alignment is the following pair of constraint hierarchies: Cx = *X/z » ... » *X/b » *X/a CY = *Y/a » *Y/b » ... » *Y/z The notation XId describes a linguistic element that combines the properties d and X, such as a d that occurs in position or context X.

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A Thematic Guide to Optimality Theory by John J. McCarthy

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